Hydrocracking, as one of the main processes of heavy oil deep processing, is a typical clean production process and has become the core of the combination of oil refining, chemical industry and chemical fiber. Hydrocracking technology shows outstanding technical, economic and environmental advantages in solving heavy and poor quality of crude oil and cleaning and quality of engine fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to vigorously develop hydrocracking technology, especially the hydrocracking technology of heavy oil decompression gas oil.
Hydrogenation reactors are mostly fixed-bed reactors, and the hydrogenation reaction belongs to gas-liquid-solid three-phase trickle-bed reaction. The hydrogenation reactors are divided into cold-wall reactors and hot-wall reactors. The cold-wall reactors have thermal insulation lining, and the material grade of the reactors is low. Instead of thermal insulation lining, the hot wall reactor uses double surfacing lining, mostly made of 2×1/4 Cr-1M0.
The operation conditions of hydrogenation reactor are high temperature, high pressure and hydrogen exposure. It is one of the most important equipment of hydrogenation unit.
It processes all kinds of heavy feedstocks, and produces high-quality steam, coal, diesel, lubricating oil, chemical naphtha and steam cracking feedstock for ethylene production. High-pressure hydrocracking includes single stage series, two stages and single stage processes. Different types of catalysts and process conditions can be selected according to different user requirements for the target products to control different one-way conversion rates. It can also be operated in a way that some or all of the middle distillates or tail oil are recycled at one time. The cycle cutting point can also be set flexibly according to needs, so it is flexible and adaptable It can meet different needs of users. For enterprises that want to produce chemical naphtha and steam cracking feedstock to ethylene in the largest amount from limited feedstock, they can choose the middle distillate full cycle single stage tandem high-pressure hydrocracking process; For enterprises that mainly aim to produce chemical naphtha and steam cracking feedstock for ethylene production and hope to concurrently produce some high-quality middle distillate oil products, single stage series once through high-pressure hydrocracking process should be adopted.
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